Practical WAEC Biology Specimen 2024/2025

In the upcoming WAEC Biology Practical Examination for the 2024/2025 academic year, candidates will have the task of scrutinizing different specimens and employing specific equipment to perform experiments. These experiments are designed to evaluate their comprehension of biological principles and their practical aptitude. Below is a comprehensive overview of the specimens and equipment included:

WAEC Biology Practical Specimen 2024/2025

WAEC Biology Practical Specimen 2024/2025

The practical examination encompasses a variety of specimens, each with its distinct role in evaluating the candidate’s grasp of biology. To assist them in this examination, candidates will also receive necessary equipment and materials. Let’s delve into the specifics.

Specimen AMature fresh eggs of catfish
Specimen BFresh egg of domestic fowl (raw, with shell intact)
Specimen CPicture/model/chart of uterus containing a foetus
Specimen DLongitudinal section of ovary of pride of Barbados flower
Specimen ELeaf of pride of Barbados flower
Specimen FPanicum plant/Guinea grass (whole plant)
Specimen GCocoyam plant/Caladium plant (whole plant)
Specimen HCorm of cocoyam
Specimen JDry humus in a beaker
Specimen KMoist humus in a beaker
Specimen LRipe orange fruit (whole)
Specimen MLongitudinal section of coconut fruit
Specimen NLongitudinal section of fresh chili pepper fruit

WAEC Biology Practical Specimen 2024/2025

Necessary Equipment and Materials

It is imperative that each candidate be furnished with the following equipment and materials:

1. Hand lens or magnifying lens
2. Scalpel, razor blade, or knife
3. Pair of forceps
4. Hand gloves
5. Spatula
6. Petri dish
7. Fehling’s solutions A and B
8. Iodine solution

These provided materials, comprising magnifying lenses, cutting implements, and chemical solutions, will facilitate candidates in effectively executing their experiments during the 2024/2025 WAEC Biology Practical Examination.

Comprehensive Description of the WAEC Biology Practical Specimen 2023/2024

Specimen A – Fully Developed Catfish Eggs:

These eggs are derived from mature catfish and are employed as specimens for examination. Catfish are renowned for their distinctive reproductive mechanisms, and these eggs serve as an opportunity to delve into their reproductive biology. Candidates may scrutinize and assess the eggs’ dimensions, morphology, and color, as well as any discernible features indicative of their developmental stage.

Specimen B – Fresh Domestic Fowl Egg (Uncooked, Intact Shell):

This specimen consists of a fresh egg from a domestic fowl, commonly known as a chicken. The egg is presented in its raw state, with the shell remaining intact. Candidates can observe the external attributes of the egg, encompassing its shape, size, color, and the texture and markings on the shell. This specimen enables candidates to comprehend the structure and characteristics of avian eggs.

Specimen C – Visual Representation/Model/Chart of a Uterus with a Fetus:

Specimen C is not a tangible specimen but a visual aid depicting a uterus containing a fetus. Its purpose is to assist candidates in grasping the structure and function of the uterus in the context of reproduction. Candidates can utilize this chart or model to identify components of the female reproductive system and acquire knowledge about embryonic development.

Specimen D – Longitudinal Section of the Ovary of a Pride of Barbados Flower:

This specimen entails a longitudinal section of the ovary of the Pride of Barbados flower. Candidates can closely examine the internal structure of the flower’s ovary, a vital female reproductive organ. They may observe ovules, potential seeds, and other structures related to plant reproduction.

Specimen E – Leaf from a Pride of Barbados Flower:

Specimen E comprises a leaf from the Pride of Barbados flower. Candidates have the opportunity to investigate the leaf’s external characteristics, including its shape, size, color, and any distinctive features. This specimen facilitates exploration of the leaf structure of a flowering plant.

Specimen F – Panicum Plant (Complete Plant):

This specimen encompasses the entire Panicum plant, commonly known as Guinea grass. Candidates can explore the plant in its entirety, encompassing roots, stems, leaves, and any reproductive structures such as flowers or seeds. It offers insight into the morphology of a grass species.

Specimen G – Cocoyam Plant or Caladium Plant (Complete Plant):

Similar to Specimen F, this entails the complete plant of either a cocoyam or Caladium. Candidates can scrutinize the entire plant, including underground storage structures like corms, leaves, stems, and any reproductive components. This specimen offers a chance to comprehend the morphology of a tuberous plant.

Specimen H – Corm of a Cocoyam Plant:

This specimen is the corm of a cocoyam plant. Candidates can assess the corm’s external features, encompassing size, shape, and color. Furthermore, they can delve into its internal structure to comprehend how these subterranean organs store energy and nutrients.

Specimen J – Dry Humus in a Beaker:

Specimen J comprises dry humus in a beaker. Humus arises from the decomposition of plant and animal matter in soil. Candidates can examine its texture, color, and composition to gain insights into humus’s role in soil fertility and nutrient cycling.

Specimen K – Moist Humus in a Beaker:

Similar to Specimen J, this specimen contains moist humus in a beaker. Candidates can discern distinctions between dry and moist humus and comprehend how moisture levels influence soil characteristics and plant growth.

Specimen L – Ripe Whole Orange Fruit:

This specimen is an entire ripe orange fruit. Candidates can inspect its external attributes, including size, color, texture, and any visible indicators of ripeness. It offers an understanding of the structure and characteristics of a typical fruit.

Specimen M – Longitudinal Section of a Coconut Fruit:

This specimen entails a longitudinal section of a coconut fruit, enabling candidates to explore its internal structure. They may observe various components of the coconut, such as the endosperm, embryo, and coconut water, providing insights into coconut development.

Specimen N – Longitudinal Section of a Fresh Chili Pepper Fruit:

Specimen N comprises a longitudinal section of a fresh chili pepper fruit. Candidates can closely examine its internal structure, encompassing seeds and placental tissues. This specimen enhances understanding of the anatomy of a chili pepper fruit.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What is the objective of the WAEC Biology Practical Examination for the year 2024/2025?

The primary goal of the WAEC Biology Practical Examination for 2024/2025 is to evaluate candidates’ practical abilities and comprehension of biological principles through hands-on experiments.

Which items will be subject to examination in the WAEC Biology Practical Examination?

The examination will encompass a variety of specimens, such as mature fresh catfish eggs, fresh domestic fowl eggs, models of reproductive anatomy, plant components, and soil constituents. These specimens cover a wide range of biological topics.

What resources will be supplied to candidates during the examination?

Candidates will receive essential tools, including hand lenses, cutting instruments, forceps, hand gloves, spatulas, Petri dishes, Fehling’s solutions A and B, and iodine solution. These materials are critical for the effective execution of experiments.

What is the significance of Specimen A in the examination?

Specimen A consists of mature fresh catfish eggs, and candidates will scrutinize them to acquire insights into the biology of fish reproduction and associated concepts.

Why is Specimen F of importance in the examination?

Specimen F, which is the Panicum plant (Guinea grass), is incorporated into the examination to enable candidates to explore the characteristics and structures of plants, with a focus on this particular grass species.

What can candidates glean from Specimen N?

Specimen N, a longitudinal section of a fresh chili pepper fruit, affords candidates the opportunity to inspect the internal structure of the fruit and possibly conduct experiments related to it.

How should candidates prepare for the WAEC Biology Practical Examination?

To excel in the examination, candidates should familiarize themselves with the specimens and provided materials. They should also practice their practical skills and review pertinent biology concepts.

What safety precautions should candidates adhere to during the practical examination?

Candidates should wear hand gloves when handling specimens and exercise caution when using cutting tools. Adhering to safety guidelines and instructions is imperative to avert accidents.

What is the purpose of employing Fehling’s solutions A and B in the examination?

Fehling’s solutions A and B serve as chemical reagents designated for specific tests. Candidates will employ these solutions to conduct experiments related to the identification of reducing sugars and other chemical reactions.

What role does the hand lens/magnifying lens play in the examination?

The hand lens/magnifying lens is employed to magnify and closely examine specimens, facilitating the observation of finer details and structures during the examination.

What constitutes the lineup of specimens for the Biology Practical exam in WAEC 2024/2025?

The specimens featured in the WAEC 2024/2025 Biology examination encompass a diverse assortment of biological materials for candidates to investigate. These encompass mature fresh catfish eggs (Specimen A), fresh domestic fowl eggs with intact shells (Specimen B), a picture/model/chart illustrating a uterus containing a foetus (Specimen C), a longitudinal section of the ovary of the pride of Barbados flower (Specimen D), a leaf from the pride of Barbados flower (Specimen E), a complete Panicum plant, also recognized as Guinea grass (Specimen F), an entire Cocoyam or Caladium plant (Specimen G), the corm of cocoyam (Specimen H), dry humus in a beaker (Specimen J), moist humus in a beaker (Specimen K), a ripe orange fruit (Specimen L), a longitudinal section of a coconut fruit (Specimen M), and a longitudinal section of a fresh chili pepper fruit (Specimen N). These diverse specimens are designed to evaluate candidates’ knowledge and practical skills across a range of biological domains, encompassing animal reproduction, plant anatomy, and soil composition.


Candidates should prepare diligently to maximize their performance in this practical examination, which evaluates their practical skills and comprehension of biological principles. Armed with a clear understanding of the specimens and the provided materials, candidates can approach the examination with confidence and showcase their abilities to the fullest extent.

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